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Cancer is an uncontrolled growth of cells that invade surrounding tissue replacing native cells resulting in disease and finally death. Mutation in genes that encode cell cycle proteins causes cancer. Cancer vaccination involves stimulation of the immune system, that promotes recognition and elimination of tumour cells. Proteins expressed on a target cell serve as antigens, which bind to receptors on T cells, leading to activation of the latter. Anticancer immunotherapy relies on effective targeting of antigens that can be recognized by high avidity T-cells. Success of cancer vaccine appears to be limited. Targeted vaccines become ineffective as the target mutates. Genetically engineered vaccines may prove to be ineffective as neutralizing antibodies may be produced. Adjuvants used for poorly immunogenic vaccines may prove to be toxic. Thus, the development of effective cancer vaccines require continued efforts, thoughtful clinical trials, and scientific progress which might induce long-term specific anticancer response with immune memory cells, and could contribute to effective and lasting elimination of malignant cells.