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Previous studies on post-operative pain document that most patients continue to experience pain after surgery. This study was done to record the drug use for post- operative pain in laparotomy and to determine the patient characteristics that affect their pain score. A prospective observational study in 64 adult patients undergoing laparotomy surgery from General Surgery and Obstetrics and Gynaecology (OBG) at a tertiary care hospital. Among patients recruited, 161 (64.4%) were females, 134 (53.6 %) from surgery department, mean age 37.29±14.9 years. Caesarean section 64 (73.27%) followed by meshplasty 34.3% were most common.  Parenteral tramadol 100mg (40%) was the most common analgesic post-operative, subsequently shifted to oral. Epidural analgesia used in 12.4% patients, only from surgery department. First analgesic received within 6 hrs in 55.5 % in surgery and 44.5 % in OBG (Pearson χ2 =2.535, p = 0.111) with mean time to first analgesic 2.85±2.33 hrs. Pain score, using Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) recorded for 80% patients showed 30.4% had severe pain on day 1 which decreased to 12 (4.8%) on day 3. Speciality (p=0.01) and nature of surgery (p=0.05) were significantly associated with severity of pain. Gender [OR = 0.55 (95% CI = 0.26, 1.19), p=0.13], nature of surgery [2.32 (1.02, 5.32), p=0.05], speciality [0.35 (0.15, 0.80), p=0.01] and surgical category [0.76 (1.01, 5.32), p=0.05] affected pain score on univariate logistic regression, but were not significant on multivariate analysis. Despite the use of opioids and combination analgesics, one third of patients reported severe pain on the first day after surgery.


Analgesics, Laparotomy Numerical rating scale

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