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The thyroid gland is located at the base of our neck, It produces two hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), which circulate through our bloodstream and control metabolic activity in every cell in the body.

Hypothyroidism or underactive thyroid occurs when the thyroid gland cannot produce enough thyroid hormones to meet the body’s demands. This causes all bodily functions to slow down and we feel tired, sluggish, achy, and gain weight.

The most common cause of hypothyroidism was iodine deficiency. Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormone. The most common cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto’s disease, which is an autoimmune disorder in which the body makes antibodies that attack the thyroid gland. This impairs the production of thyroid hormone. People with Hashimoto’s develop a lump on their thyroid called a goiter.

Hypothyroidism can also result from treatment of Graves’ disease (hyperthyroidism) with radioactive iodine, which destroys the thyroid gland, leaving it unable to produce hormones, and from surgical removal of the thyroid gland due to thyroid cancer. A baby can be born without a thyroid gland (congenital hypothyroidism).Diseases of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland can also cause hypothyroidism. These glands are involved in the regulation of the thyroid gland and the amount of thyroid hormone that is released. The hypothalamus releases thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which signals your pituitary gland to make thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The amount of TSH released depends on how much T3 and T4 are in our blood. The thyroid gland regulates its production of hormones based on the amount of TSH it receives. Hypothyroidism is easily treated today with thyroid hormones, Nutritional supplements, and various lifestyle approaches.

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