International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) https://ijpcr.net/ijpcr <p><strong><em>International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) </em></strong>is a peer-reviewed, quarterly official international journal allowing access to abstracts<strong>&nbsp;</strong>and<strong>&nbsp;</strong>full-text. The journal is devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (Pharmacology, Biopharmaceutics, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry, Computational Chemistry &amp; Molecular Drug Design, Pharmacognosy &amp; Phytochemistry, Pharmaceutical Analysis, Pharmacy Practice, Clinical &amp; Hospital Pharmacy, Cell Biology, Genomics &amp; Proteomics, Pharmacogenomics, Bioinformatics including biotechnology, cell &amp; molecular biology, Pharmaceutical biotechnology/microbiology, medical and other life sciences).</p> <p><strong>ISSN</strong>&nbsp;-&nbsp;<strong><em>International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR)</em></strong></p> <p><strong>Online</strong>:<strong>&nbsp;</strong>2521-2206</p> <p><strong><em>International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research </em></strong>seeks to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, pharmaceutical industries and healthcare sector as well as provide an international forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and opinions in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal particularly welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance. All manuscripts will be subjected to rapid peer review. Those of high quality (not previously published and not already under consideration for publication) will be published.</p> Dr.N.Sriram en-US International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2521-2206 An Observational Study Of Etiology And Clinical Manifestations Of Anaemia In Rural Hospital https://ijpcr.net/ijpcr/article/view/208 <p>Anemia is very commonly encountered in general clinical practice among all age groups. Although the etiology for such is truly myriad, with a comprehensive history, physical examination, and directed laboratory evaluation, a specific diagnosis can often be arrived at. A comprehensive history, physical examination, and directed laboratory evaluation will help to identify a specific cause for anemia. So, the present study was conducted for clinical and laboratory evaluation of anemia in local population and to find out its etiology for appropriate treatment and preventive strategies.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The present study was done over one year in a rural hospital. All patients who were anaemic during the study period were enrolled.patients below 18 years,who did not give consent for the study were excluded. Complete detailed history was taken and general physical examination is done for all patients.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>out of 230 patients&nbsp; there was female preponderance&nbsp; with 163 females and 37 males.there were more number of patients in age group 21-30 yrs about 59.among the symptoms fatigue was followed by shortness of breath and weight loss.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The mean age of the study patients was 44.86 ± 15.7 with age range of 21 – 74 years and the gender ratio female: male of the study was 2.43:1. Fatigue or generalized weakness was the most common symptoms</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>anaemia,fatigue,sob,weakness,microcytic</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Yadavendra Reddy Chama Karunakar Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2022-07-12 2022-07-12 6 3 184 196 Effect of obesity on PCOD (polycystic ovarian disorder) https://ijpcr.net/ijpcr/article/view/212 <p>While many women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are overweight, obese or centrally obese, the effect of excess weight on the outcomes of PCOS is inconsistent. The review aimed to assess the effects of overweight, obesity and central obesity on the reproductive, metabolic and psychological features of PCOS. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and PSYCINFO were searched for studies reporting outcomes according to body mass index categories or body fat distribution. Data were presented as mean difference or risk ratio (95% confidence interval). This review included 30 eligible studies. Overweight or obese women with PCOS had decreased sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), increased total testosterone, free androgen index, hirsutism, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance index and worsened lipid profile. Obesity significantly worsened all metabolic and reproductive outcomes measured except for hirsutism when compared to normal weight women with PCOS. Overweight women had no differences in total testosterone, hirsutism, total-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol compared to normal weight women and no differences in SHBG and total testosterone compared to obese women. Central obesity was associated with higher fasting insulin levels. These results suggest that prevention and treatment of obesity is important for the management of PCOS<strong><sup>.</sup></strong></p> Anjana Kalisetty Saraswathi N. Divya Ranjini N.Sravani Baseer Abrar Bala Brahma Chary J.Shruthi Reddy Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2022-07-26 2022-07-26 6 3 197 202 Review on current scenario of dengue vaccine https://ijpcr.net/ijpcr/article/view/213 <p>Dengue fever is the most prevalent arboviral disease, caused by one of four separate but closely related dengue viruses (DENV), and it has a considerable economic and public health impact in endemic areas. A dengue vaccine will be critical in furthering illness management. However, the work has been hampered by the need to induce good protection against all four DENV serotypes, as well as the possibility of an unfavourable effect due to the phenomena that partial immunity to DENV may aggravate symptoms upon future heterotypic infection. The most modern dengue vaccines available today are all tetravalent and based on recombinant live attenuated viruses. Sanofi Pasteur's CYD-TDV vaccine has been licenced for use in people who have previously been infected with dengue. Two other tetravalent live attenuated vaccine candidates: TAK-003 by Takeda and TV003 by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, have completed phase 3 and phase 2 clinical trials, respectively.</p> Mohd Wasiullah Syed Yasoob Zaidi Yusuf Quraishee Shashikant Maury Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2022-07-26 2022-07-26 6 3 203 209 Study on left ventricular hypertrophy in chronic kidney disease patients attending tertiary care hospital in Central India https://ijpcr.net/ijpcr/article/view/214 <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased cardiovascular&nbsp;risk. LVH is highly prevalent in CKD even in early stages, as compared to general non-selected population. This is mainly due to the multifactorial pathogenesis of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in renal patients where both haemodynamic and non-haemodynamic stimuli synergically act inducing either an increase in left ventricular mass or an LV dilation. The presence of LVH in patients with CKD is associated with worsening cardiovascular outcomes.&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>OBJETIVES:</strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong>To find the factors which correlate with left ventricular hypertrophy in chronic kidney disease patients.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong>This study was done in the Department of Medicine of &nbsp;GMC &amp;&nbsp;Hamidia hospital Bhopal. It was a hospital based prospective observational study&nbsp;in which&nbsp;50&nbsp;diagnosed CKD patients&nbsp;(stage 3 and 4)&nbsp;&nbsp;were studied. All the patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were subjected to detailed clinical history, systemic examination, routine investigation, SUA measurement and echocardiography for determination of LVH. The results thus obtained from clinical/laboratory examinations were analysed with the ECHO findings to determine the correlation with progression in CKD. &nbsp;the categorical data was compared by using chi-square test. P value of &lt; 0.05 is considered as significant.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>RESULTS : </strong>The &nbsp;study had an mean&nbsp;age of 54 ±&nbsp;13.49 years.&nbsp;Mean Ejection fraction of the patients was 54.13%. The mean baseline Systolic Blood pressure recorded &nbsp;was 150.92+24.82mmHg. with a range from 140 to 165 mmhg and Diastolic blood pressures recorded &nbsp;was 103.92 + 19.97mmHg. There were 27% of the patients who had left ventricular hypertrophy at baseline. Around 6 patients had RWMA and 16 patients had dilated cardiomyopathy.&nbsp;ECG revealed that, around 27% of the sample had LVH. At baseline, the patients LVH was determined to be 111.09±29.41.&nbsp;Majority (58.0%) of the sample have reduced ejection fraction</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong>The results of this&nbsp;study conclude that&nbsp;more clinical trials are needed to assess guidelines for treating CKD related hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Study also showed&nbsp;a&nbsp;higher percentage of hypertension patients were found in patients with a high LVH&nbsp;and uric acid, which was accompanied by a high LVH.&nbsp;Patients with hypertension, raised serum creatinine, high LVH, &nbsp;and high uric acid exhibited a statistically significant higher incidence of decline in renal function.</p> Dr. B. Preethi Dr. Sumedha Boudh Dr. Himanshu Sharma Dr. R. Gupta Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2022-08-21 2022-08-21 6 3 210 214 Studies on the effect of trikatu on oral bioavailability of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin https://ijpcr.net/ijpcr/article/view/217 <p>Ciprofloxacin and Ofloxacin are used to treat variety of Bacterial infections in Humans. These two drugs possess poor oral bioavailability as found from literatures. Ayurvedic literatures deal with the enhancement of oral bioavailability by TRIKATU (mixture of alcoholic extracts of dried fruits of Piper longum, dried fruits of Piper nigrum and dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinalis). The study was aimed to find out the efficacy of TRIKATU or its components in enhancing bioavailability of the above antibiotics. The extracts of components of TRIKATU were preparedby soxhlation using alcohol (90%). The study was carried out in rabbits by oral administration of the extracts of the components and their combination in equal proportions (TRIKATU) along with above antibiotics. Blood samples were drawn at time intervals equal to three half – lives of the antibiotics and their plasma concentrations were estimated microbiologically. TRIKATU enhanced the Bioavailability of Ciprofloxacin, but the components produced no effect on Ofloxacin Bioavailability. Trikatu has shown maximal enhancementfor both antibiotics</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Pavithra. N KAS Mohamed Shafeeq S Karpagam Kumara Sundari R. Sethamarai Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2022-08-23 2022-08-23 6 3 215 217 Study Of Plasma D-Dimer Levels In Acute Ischemic Stroke And Its Correlation With Severity Of Stroke https://ijpcr.net/ijpcr/article/view/223 <p><strong><em>Introduction</em></strong></p> <p>Ischemic stroke has emerged as a major source of morbidity and mortality all over the world and especially in India where the number of patients of diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease is on the rise. Plus the financial burden incurred during the care of stroke patients can be overwhelming not only for the families but also for the healthcare system in general. Hence newer tools for decreasing risk of developing ischemic stroke and for its early detection and prognostication need to be constantly looked into. In our study one particular prognostic tool and intervention for early detection and prognostication of ischemic stroke, namely plasma d-dimer was studied. We studied the d-dimer values in ischemic strokes and the association of d-dimer values with the clinical severity of ischemic stroke at the time of admission as defined by the NIHSS score.</p> <p><strong><em>Aim</em></strong></p> <p>To study d-dimer levels in acute ischemic stroke and the correlation of plasma d-dimer levels with the severity of stroke.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong></p> <p>The study was a cross sectional study carried out over 18 months at Safdarjung hospital, New Delhi. As part of the study, it was predecided to select 150 ischemic stroke patients and find out their plasma d-dimer levels. The clinical severity of stroke was also calculated using the NIHSS scores which is an objective scale to assess stroke severity.</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong></p> <p>In our study it was found that patients who were hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke had significantly higher d-dimer values (mean 468.09, median 368, S.D 281.71,p&lt;0.0001) than those in the control group(mean 138.94, median 127, S.D 56.92).We also found that patients with higher d-dimer levels had more severe stroke as defined by NIHSS score.(p&lt;0.0001).</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong></p> <p>D-dimer values are elevated in ischemic stroke and higher d-dimer values correlated with clinically more severe strokes. Hence d-dimer shows promise as a marker for diagnosis and assessment of severity of ischemic strokes.</p> Rajesh Manocha Anirban Palit Himanshu Verma Ankush Rana Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2022-09-02 2022-09-02 6 3 218 222 A study on identifying the risk factors associated with decline in renal function in patients with CKD https://ijpcr.net/ijpcr/article/view/226 <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> The state of kidney damage or reduced kidney function lasting three months or longer, known as chronic kidney disease (CKD), is both progressive and irreversible. An emerging challenge is the identification of potential factors associated with rapid renal function decline, which would form the basis for the development of strategies to prevent or retard disease progression, and reduce complications, thereby improving disease outcomes. We are clearly facing an urgent public health problem in the country and worldwide.</p> <p><strong><em>Objectives:</em></strong> To identify the risk factors associated with decline in renal function in patients with CKD</p> <p><strong><em>Materials and Methods:</em></strong> This study was done in the Department of Medicine of GMC &amp; Hamidia hospital Bhopal. It was a hospital based prospective observational study in which 50 diagnosed CKD patients (stage 3 and 4) were studied. All the patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were subjected to detailed clinical history, systemic examination, routine investigation, SUA measurement and echocardiography for determination of LVH. Measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and GFR estimating equations are important tools for identification and association of risk factors for CKD progression. The results thus obtained from clinical/laboratory examinations were analysed with the ECHO findings to determine the correlation with progression in CKD.&nbsp; The categorical data was compared by using chi-square test. P value of &lt; 0.05 is considered as significant.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> According to the KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guidelines for the evaluation and management of CKD, a rapid decline in renal function was defined as a sustained decline in eGFR of &gt; 5 mL/min per 1.73 m2 per year. In CKD, lower level of kidney function at presentation, higher levels of proteinuria, and hypertension are known markers for a more rapid decline in GFR. Anemia and other reported risk factors from the pre-genomic era have need for further study and validation. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic loci which have provided novel genetic risk factors for CKD progression.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> Potential risk factors contributing to a rapid decline in renal function include ethnic/genetic and demographic factors, lifestyle and health behaviors, metabolic and biochemical abnormalities, cardiovascular functional factors, smoking habits, increased glycated hemoglobin levels, obesity, albuminuria, anemia, low serum magnesium levels, high serum phosphate levels, vitamin D deficiency, elevated systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity values, retinopathy, and cardiac autonomic neuropathy.</p> Sumedha Boudh Dr B.Preethi Dr.Vandana Rawat Dr. R S Meena Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2022-09-04 2022-09-04 6 3 223 228 Delonix Regia Leaf Extract: A Potential Candidate For Antioxidant Activity https://ijpcr.net/ijpcr/article/view/240 <p>In traditional system of medicine, various parts of Delonixregia have been used for many ailments. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the memory enhancing activity of Ethanolic Extract of Delonixregia leaves. Ethanolic Extract of Delonixregia was prepared then subjected to phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, carbohydrates, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, phenols and saponins. Acute oral toxicity was performed as per OECD guidelines 423. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Delonixregia leaves was evaluated by ABTS 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)&nbsp; and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay . Hence it can be concluded that Delonixregia having potent antioxidant and memory enhancing&nbsp; activity for curing various ailments.</p> S. Sudha R. Suwathi K.A.S. Mohammed Shafeeq S. Karpagam Kumara Sundari Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2022-09-24 2022-09-24 6 3 229 233