International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) <p><strong><em>International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) </em></strong>is a peer-reviewed, quarterly official international journal allowing access to abstracts<strong>&nbsp;</strong>and<strong>&nbsp;</strong>full-text. The journal is devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (Pharmacology, Biopharmaceutics, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry, Computational Chemistry &amp; Molecular Drug Design, Pharmacognosy &amp; Phytochemistry, Pharmaceutical Analysis, Pharmacy Practice, Clinical &amp; Hospital Pharmacy, Cell Biology, Genomics &amp; Proteomics, Pharmacogenomics, Bioinformatics including biotechnology, cell &amp; molecular biology, Pharmaceutical biotechnology/microbiology, medical and other life sciences).</p> <p><strong>ISSN</strong>&nbsp;-&nbsp;<strong><em>International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR)</em></strong></p> <p><strong>Online</strong>:<strong>&nbsp;</strong>2521-2206</p> <p><strong><em>International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research </em></strong>seeks to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, pharmaceutical industries and healthcare sector as well as provide an international forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and opinions in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal particularly welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance. All manuscripts will be subjected to rapid peer review. Those of high quality (not previously published and not already under consideration for publication) will be published.</p> Dr.N.Sriram en-US International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2521-2206 Antibiotic resistance in aquatic micro-organisms: The influence of heavy metals. <p>Antibiotic resistance and heavy metal pollution in water bodies are becoming more prominent concerns throughout the world, since heavy metal tolerance in bacteria is a contributing factor to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Recently, researchers established a link between heavy metal exposure and antibiotic resistance in bacteria; in both cases, similar mechanisms exist to allow bacteria to survive in adverse settings while producing antibiotic resistance. Several co-resistance mechanisms may be found on the same plasmid or genetic element, or they may be found on different chromosomal materials. Heavy metals are released into the environment by several industrial and domestic activities, which pollutes and contaminates land and water bodies. Heavy metal concentrations in bodies of water are continuing to grow, exposing the present bacterial variety to tolerance mechanisms and allowing them to develop a larger degree of resistance to heavy metals over time. When these bacteria are exposed to antibiotics in the future, they will activate and express previously developed mechanisms, which will enable them to survive at high dosages with relative ease in the future. Antibiotic and heavy metal resistance in aquatic bacteria is increasing, which may have ramifications for environmental, therapeutic, and drug development investigations, among other things.</p> Shivam Choudghal Rojin G Raj Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2022-04-22 2022-04-22 6 2 82 86 In-vitro Pre Clinical Screening Methods and Treatment Therapies for Cancer: An Overview <p>Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity world wide . Genetically altered cancer cell gets away from cell cycle and leads towards to cell death and immortal .The global burden of deadly cancer is expected to the 28.4 million 2040. Historical findings of cancer begins from Hippocrates and end with FDA approved chimaric antigen therapy .Over the centuries, pap test was the first cancer screening now it replaced by modern techniques. The various types reported&nbsp; cancers were carcinoma ,sarcoma, tumor , leukaemia, myeloma and malignancy .There are eight most common types of cancer&nbsp; and it can be detected by various methods which includes the physical and lab test. The preclinical <em>invitro </em>screening method is ideal for cancer research,screening the new drug and development of drug therapies.Still, there is continues need for better and innovative therapy. Previously the radiation and surgery for most used method to treat the cancer. In this article we aimed to discuss the history including screening,types of cancer,most common types of cancer,<em>in-vitro</em> pre clinical screening method and discussed the various therapies used for the cancer treatment.</p> Sumithira G Sabarinathan G Sabari Giri Janani K Mugundhan D Vennila Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2022-04-28 2022-04-28 6 2 87 98 A Review: Link between Chronic Liver Disease and COVID-19 <p>COVID-19 is characterized by the recently identified SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, that was originally surfaced at Wuhan, China, but soon expanded globally, posing a huge public health threat. In the same way as with severe acute respiratory is mostly a respiratory illness with symptoms such as cough, dyspnea and fever&nbsp;being the most often reported. Causes of acute syndrome (ARDS), septic shock, and death are all possible outcomes for patients who get pneumonia in the most extreme circumstances. Additionally, liver dysfunction has been noted as a frequent symptom, but its clinical importance is unknown, especially in individuals with underlying chronic liver illness. In the wake of the pandemic surge and subsequent lockdown, numerous medical ailments and illnesses have been impacted. Patient care for those with pre-existing liver illness, hepatocellular carcinoma, and those who have undergone or are scheduled to get a liver transplant has been altered because of the early ambiguity and concern about SARS-CoV-2 cross transmission. COVID-19 is a multisystem illness caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus strain. Pre-existing liver illness may reappear and produce acute liver damage. There have been several studies looking at the effects of COVID-19 on the liver and how it may be used to treat those who already have liver disease. This article summarizes the findings of such investigations.</p> Gurpreet Singh Multani Jasmeen Kaur Mandeep Kaur Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 6 2 99 104 Nano particle targeting brain system <p>The drug delivery to the brain system is a most challenge to the scientist for developing the drug designed for CNS. The major problem is that all the drugs does not passes through BBB, only nanoparticles and highly lipid soluble drugs may pass through. The BBB is a most essential barrier between the circulating blood and the neural tissue. The criteria for drug delivery includes the following, a) the drug must be stable, b)the drug must have access to brain, c) the dose should be sustained and controlled, d) the effect of drug should be localized. The drug may administer either by systemic administration or by direct delivery of drugs into the brain. The polymers which plays an most important role in the advancement of drug delivery technology by providing controlled release of therapeutic effect, administered in the constant dose over a long period of time. The BBB maintains the brain homoeostasis as well as movement of ion and molecule. Failure in this process results in breakdown of brain cell structure. This may leads to a disease such as Parkinson disease and Alzheimer’s disease.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> S. Sangeetha S Chandra R. Vibin Bose S. Kavibharathi R. Suresh P. Dhivyabharathi Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2022-05-09 2022-05-09 6 2 105 111 Elements deficiency that causes brain diseases <p>The trace elements deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Trace metals such as iron, zinc, cobalt, copper, potassium, lithium, iodine, manganese, molybdenum etc., are necessary for the growth and function of the brain. The transport of trace metals into the brain is strictly regulated by the brain barrier system. The homeostasis of trace metals in the brain is important for brain function and also for the prevention of brain diseases. Women of reproductive age, young children and age person are particularly vulnerable to the element deficiency diseases.</p> R. Suresh S. Chandra B. Logeswaran S. Sangeetha S. Kavibharathi N. Senthil kumar Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2022-05-14 2022-05-14 6 2 112 116