International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) <p><strong><em>International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) </em></strong>is a peer-reviewed, quarterly official international journal allowing access to abstracts<strong>&nbsp;</strong>and<strong>&nbsp;</strong>full-text. The journal is devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (Pharmacology, Biopharmaceutics, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry, Computational Chemistry &amp; Molecular Drug Design, Pharmacognosy &amp; Phytochemistry, Pharmaceutical Analysis, Pharmacy Practice, Clinical &amp; Hospital Pharmacy, Cell Biology, Genomics &amp; Proteomics, Pharmacogenomics, Bioinformatics including biotechnology, cell &amp; molecular biology, Pharmaceutical biotechnology/microbiology, medical and other life sciences).</p> <p><strong>ISSN</strong>&nbsp;-&nbsp;<strong><em>International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR)</em></strong></p> <p><strong>Online</strong>:<strong>&nbsp;</strong>2521-2206</p> <p><strong><em>International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research </em></strong>seeks to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, pharmaceutical industries and healthcare sector as well as provide an international forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and opinions in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal particularly welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance. All manuscripts will be subjected to rapid peer review. Those of high quality (not previously published and not already under consideration for publication) will be published.</p> Dr.N.Sriram en-US International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2521-2206 Advances in Understanding and Treating Schizophrenia: A Comprehensive Review <p>Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder characterized by psychotic symptoms, including hallucinations and delusions, which profoundly impact emotions, behavior, and cognition. Its global prevalence underscores its significance as a public health concern, with substantial social and economic burdens. The pathophysiology of schizophrenia implicates dysregulation of neurotransmitters, particularly dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate. Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by a wide range of symptoms and cognitive impairments, profoundly impacting affected individuals and society. This article provides an overview of schizophrenia, including its epidemiology, symptoms, and underlying pathophysiology involving dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate. It discusses the current treatment landscape, emphasizing the importance of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Non-pharmacological approaches such as cognitive remediation, physical exercise, non-invasive brain stimulation, complementary interventions, cognitive behavioral therapy, and yoga therapy are explored, highlighting their efficacy in improving functional outcomes. Additionally, the article reviews pharmacological strategies targeting dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate receptors, as well as emerging treatments involving adrenergic, cholinergic, muscarinic, and other agents. Despite advancements, challenges in implementing evidence-based interventions persist, underscoring the need for further research and collaboration to enhance schizophrenia management and improve the lives of affected individuals.</p> Amna Hameed Thayyil Zeenath P Aiswarya Lakshmi P E Tamil Jothi G Babu Anson S Maroky Copyright (c) 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 8 2 138 146 Efficacy of Statins Use in the Treatment of Colorectal Cancer Patients Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis <p>Numerous observational studies conducted in the past few years have confirmed the link between statin use and colorectal cancer by preserving and lowering the death rate. Statins may have an impact on cancer cells' ability to proliferate, migrate, and survive. Since the 1990s, the idea of utilizing statins to treat cancer has gained traction. Statins have been used in cohort studies, in vitro and in vivo tests, and on tumor-related inflammation and oxidative stress to show their anticancer effects. Method: we systematically searched for studies about the statin used in colorectal cancer patients in electronic databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, academic Google Scholar, and science direct, covering the last eight years up until 2022. A total of 8 studies, which include 506,346 individuals, of whom, 100,225 were statins users. The collected data assessed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Result: Our analysis selected studies presented with outcome based on relative ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of colorectal cancer-specific mortality. The use of statin was potentially associated with a decline in colorectal cancer-specific mortality in cancer patients (RR; 0.92; 95% CI, 0.90 to 0.95; random-effects model: RR0.90; 95% CI, 0.79 to 0.96). The meta-analysis showed that ongoing statin therapy was associated with a 20% decrease in the risk of colorectal cancer-specific mortality compared to patients without ongoing statin therapy (adjusted HR 0.75, 95%CI 0.65-0.85, P &lt; .002). Conclusion: The risk of colorectal cancer was lower in statin user versus nonuser, accumulating evidence suggests that statins may have a role in colorectal cancer prevention and treatment. Among Lipid lowering medication (LLM) users, adherence to this drug is associated with a decrease in cancer-specific mortality.</p> Reyad Al-Moktar Ekhmaj Wafa Mahmoud Alshaiby Einass Ragab Ibraheim Copyright (c) 2024-04-19 2024-04-19 8 2 147 155 Understanding relationship between menstrual irregularities, psychological stress, and anemia <p>This study examines the relationships between menstrual irregularities, psychological stress, and anemia in women, highlighting significant health impacts and the need for improved diagnostic and management strategies. Our findings indicate that 90% of the women studied experience moderate psychological stress, emphasizing the profound effect of psychosocial factors on reproductive health. Additionally, despite normal hemoglobin levels, around half of these women are undiagnosed with anemia, suggesting deficiencies in current diagnostic protocols and an underestimation of anemia's prevalence.</p> <p>Our analysis also reveals a 20% prevalence of thyroid disorders among participants, often co-occurring with conditions like PCOS and vitamin deficiencies, advocating for a multidisciplinary approach to healthcare. Advanced statistical techniques provide insights into how these health issues are interconnected, guiding the development of targeted interventions and preventive measures.</p> <p>The study underscores the necessity for holistic healthcare that integrates physical, psychological, and social factors, and highlights the importance of education on menstrual health and regular screenings. By addressing these issues comprehensively, the research contributes to efforts aimed at enhancing women's health globally, minimizing disparities, and improving overall well-being.</p> J. Shruthi Reddy J. Mohana K. Pradeep Goud K. Anjana Saraswathi Copyright (c) 2024-05-28 2024-05-28 8 2 156 167 To Study The Anti Ulcer Activity Tubers Of Ipomoea Batatas (Sweet Potato) <p>The cause of ulceration in patients is mainly due to hyper secretion of gastric juice and also due to hyper secretion of pepsin. In traditional system of medicine a number of herbal preparations have been used for the treatment of peptic ulcers. There are various medicinal plants has been used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. In view of this, in present study we have to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of <em>Ipomoea batatas</em>. Study was carried out, by using three methods i.e., alcohol, paracetamol and stress induced ulcers in rats pretreated with the doses of 250 mg/kg AQIB and ALIB, 10mg/kg Omeprazole and 50 mg/kg Ranitidine. To evaluate the antiulcer activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of <em>Ipomoea batatas </em>leaves (AQIB and ALIB) at 250 doses using different experimentally induced gastric ulcer models in rats. Gastric ulcers were induced in rats by 80% alcohol, paracetamol and forced immersion stress induced methods. In alcohol induced ulcer model, paracetamol induced ulcer model and stress induced model the ulcer index was determined. Where as in stress induced ulcers stress plays an important role in ulcerogenesis. In alcohol-induced ulcers, AQIB and ALIB were effective in reducing lesion index and increasing the gastric mucus content. It was also effective in decreasing ulcer index in paracetamol-induced ulcers. All the results obtained with <em>Ipomoea batatas </em>were dose dependent. The results suggest that AQIB and ALIB possesses significant and dose dependent antiulcer activity. The antiulcer activity of AQIB and ALIB can be attributed to its cytoprotective and antisecretory action</p> R. Ramya Krishna Sudha Bansal Avanapu Srinivasa Rao Nampelly Karnakar AV Kishore Babu Palancha Haripriya Momula Nitish Gotte Gopala Krishna Palle Gouthami Tangatoori Shalini Copyright (c) 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 8 2 168 177 Formulation And Evaluation Of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Loaded With Herbal Extracts (Poly Herbal Formulation) Showing Anti-Diabetic Activity Of Tinospora Cordifolia <p><em>Tinospora Cordifolia</em>-loaded SLNs to improve its efficiency for treatment of diabetes. <em>Tinospora Cordifolia</em>-loaded SLNs were prepared by modified high shear homogenization and ultrasonication method using different concentration of solid lipid (Compritol 888 ATO, Cholesterol) and &nbsp;stabilizers (Tween 80 or Span20) The physicochemical properties and the <em>in vitro </em>release study for all <em>Tinospora Cordifolia</em>-loaded SLNs were investigated. Furthermore, the optimized <em>Tinospora Cordifolia</em>loaded-SLN formula. The results showed that <em>Tinospora Cordifolia</em>loaded-SLNs were almost spherical shape having colloidal sizes with no aggregation. The drug entrapment efficiency ranged from 89% to near 100%. The zeta potential values lie between -10and -30 mV presenting good stability. From the results F4 considered as optimised formulation. <em>Tinospora Cordifolia</em>showed prolonged <em>in vitro</em> release from SLNs dispersion. Findings of the study suggest that the developed <em>Tinospora Cordifolia</em>loaded SLNs have superior significant fast therapeutic index in treatment of diabetesThe preliminary phytochemical analysis of the <em>Tinospora Cordifolia</em> Solid lipid nanoparticles revealed the presence of Alkaloids, Tannins, Anthraquinones, Flavonoids, Saponins, Triterpenes, Sterols, Coumarinas the possible biologically active principles.</p> K. Sumalatha Nampelly Karnakar Avanapu Srinivasa Rao AV. Kishore Babu Donthula Vishnu Vardhan Bandi Mani Teja Kondapally Keerthi Sangani Shreya Katepaga Sathwika Copyright (c) 2024-06-16 2024-06-16 8 2 178 189 Development And Evaluation Of Nanosponge Loaded Topical Herbal Gel Of Wrighia Tinctoria <p>Psoriasis is the prevailing chronic autoimmune disorder. Nevertheless, the topical application of this substance is hindered by frequent adverse effects such as skin shrinkage, steroidal acne, hypopigmentation, and allergic contact dermatitis. The primary aim of this work was to create topical gels of Wrightia tinctoria extract utilizing a cross-linker and polymer through the solvent emulsion diffusion method. It is employed in the treatment of Psoriasis. The nanosponges were produced using the solvent emulsion diffusion technique and assessed for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, particle size determination, polydispersity index measurement, zeta potential measurement, drug content analysis, scanning electron microscopy examination, in vitro dissolution analysis, and stability assessment. The drug release and entrapment efficiency of all nanoparticles were assessed using in vitro methods. The tailored nanospheres were included in the gel to create a nano topical gel. All gel formulations underwent evaluation experiments to assess homogeneity, viscosity, spreadability, pH, and in vitro properties. The gels that were synthesized exhibited transparency, favorable viscosity, and spreadability. SEM images verified that the produced formulation exhibited a mostly spherical shape and possessed porosity. The drug release in the in vitro diffusion experiments was found to be 92.15% within a 24-hour period. The study indicates that the extract contains the active components for treating psoriasis, and the topical gel made from this extract has a notable impact in delivering the medication over a prolonged period of time.</p> G. Praveen Kumar N. Chandana Copyright (c) 2024-06-16 2024-06-16 8 2 190 202 Astashine Silver Capsules: An Excellent Choice As Kidney Protector & As Anti-Diabetic In Diabesity <p>Globally, Diabetes Mellitus and its complications is the third largest killer.At the current rate, the diabetic population of 171 million will increase to 366 million by 2030. One of the most common complications associated with DM is nephropathy or kidney damage. Diabetes is strongly linked to oxidative stress as either a consequence of increased ROS production, reduced antioxidant status, or both. Oxidative stress in diabetes is brought on by consistent hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels) from a very high carbohydrate diet, reduced cell carbohydrate uptake, and/or low insulin output from the pancreas.&nbsp; Astaxanthin could lessen oxidative stress in pancreatic beta cells (the cells in body that produce insulin) caused by chronic high blood sugar levels. In turn, this improves the body’s ability to manage blood glucose levels by allowing the pancreatic cells to make the right amount of insulin when needed.&nbsp;Astaxanthin was found to improve pancreatic beta cell function and protect these cells from glucose toxicity, cell breakdown and death. L-Carnitine is a fatty acid oxidation facilitator which acts by interorganelle translocation of fatty acids. L-carnitine is a powerful aid due to its role in the conversion of fat into energy. L-carnitine is essential for beta-oxidation by transferring long-chain fatty acids from the cytosol to mitochondria. This article reviews the current available scientific literature regarding the effect of Astashine silver capsules as Antidiabetic in diabesity and As kidney protector.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> GovindShukla Chandramauli BalaswamyN.G C.J. Sampath Kumar Rajkumar Copyright (c) 2024-06-16 2024-06-16 8 2 203 209