International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) https://ijpcr.net/ijpcr <p><strong><em>International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) </em></strong>is a peer-reviewed, quarterly official international journal allowing access to abstracts<strong>&nbsp;</strong>and<strong>&nbsp;</strong>full-text. The journal is devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (Pharmacology, Biopharmaceutics, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry, Computational Chemistry &amp; Molecular Drug Design, Pharmacognosy &amp; Phytochemistry, Pharmaceutical Analysis, Pharmacy Practice, Clinical &amp; Hospital Pharmacy, Cell Biology, Genomics &amp; Proteomics, Pharmacogenomics, Bioinformatics including biotechnology, cell &amp; molecular biology, Pharmaceutical biotechnology/microbiology, medical and other life sciences).</p> <p><strong>ISSN</strong>&nbsp;-&nbsp;<strong><em>International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR)</em></strong></p> <p><strong>Online</strong>:<strong>&nbsp;</strong>2521-2206</p> <p><strong><em>International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research </em></strong>seeks to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, pharmaceutical industries and healthcare sector as well as provide an international forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and opinions in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal particularly welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance. All manuscripts will be subjected to rapid peer review. Those of high quality (not previously published and not already under consideration for publication) will be published.</p> Dr.N.Sriram en-US International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2521-2206 Symptoms and treatment strategy of black fungus in covid-19 patients https://ijpcr.net/ijpcr/article/view/112 <p>Mucormycosis, commonly called black fungus, is a rare but serious fungal infection caused by a kind of fungus called mucormycete, which is abundant in the environment. It mainly affects people who have health problems or take medicines that lower the body’s ability to fight germs and sickness. It is being detected relatively frequently among&nbsp;Covid-19&nbsp;patients in some states of India. The disease often manifests in the skin and also affects the lungs and the brain.&nbsp;People who have been unwell with COVID-19 and are still recovering have a compromised immune system, which means they're more at risk because their body can't fight off the infection. Those who were hospitalized with severe COVID-19 disease were likely to be prescribed steroids for the reduction of infection. The steroid act by reducing the inflammation in the lungs and dampen the body's immune response in order to stop it attacking the body's healthy cells it leads to the decreased immune surveillance. Those patients were easily affected by means of mucormycete. While there is no major outbreak, the national Covid task force has issued an advisory regarding this disease.</p> Dr. S. Kameshwaran Dr.N.Sriram Raju Darla Dr.Manimehalai Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2021-05-18 2021-05-18 2021 5 24 27 A review on: Repurposed use of 2-deoxy-d-glucose as an adjunct therapy for covid-19 patients https://ijpcr.net/ijpcr/article/view/114 <p>2-Deoxy-D-Glucose with its long run history as a trialling anti-cancer agent has now approved for the management of moderate to severe corona positive patients in India. So far 218 clinical trials are going on in oncology using this drug as intervention or else as adjunct. 2-Fluro-Deoxy-D-Glucose an analogue of 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose is also being used as a radiotracer. Glucose is the source of energy for all cells in human body. As an anti-glycolytic agent, 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose put the high glucose utilizing neoplastic cells at starvation and leads to autophagy. It can also destroy high glucose demanding healthy cell like neurons is also a matter of concern. The same anti-glycolytic property is responsible for halting the pathogenesis of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus-2.It is noteworthy that the drug can also reduce oxygen dependence in active corona patients. This review collectively examines the anti-cancer and anti-viral nature of 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose. It epitomises the pharmacodynamic potential of the drug in both oncology and virology. Listing out clinical trials conducted so far using this drug as an intervention in both oncology and virology and shedding light towards the adverse effects of this drug are also important objectives.</p> Abishek.R ArumugaVignesh. M Preethi. R Priya .M Tamil Jothi. E Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2021-06-05 2021-06-05 2021 5 28 34 Phytochemical and pharmacological review study: Tecoma Stans Linn https://ijpcr.net/ijpcr/article/view/129 <p>Tecoma stans Linn is an erect shrub commonly found in India. It is also known as yellow bells, yellow elder, trumpet flower, belonging to the family Bignoniaceae. Tecoma stans, showed antidiabetic, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antitumor, antiinflammatory and antimicrobial properties. This review aims at describing the botanical description, classification, phytochemical and pharmacological profiles. Tecoma stans is a dicotyledonous herb popularly grown for its flowers as anornamental /garden plant in normal gardens and temples. It is also known as Bignonia stans L. It has wide selection of medicinal and pharmacological applications. Almost all parts (leaves, root, flower, seed, fruit, and bark) of the plant are reported for its medicinal use. Tecoma stans could also be an herbal medicine used for treatment of diabetes, digestive problems, and control of yeast infections, as powerful diuretic, vermifuge and tonic. Preliminary phytochemical screening of this plant revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, quinones and traces of saponins and amino acids. This review supports all updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities and its traditional uses.</p> Raju darla Vitta kavya Ningaraboina kavitha H.Nandini bai Balraj. P Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2021-06-14 2021-06-14 2021 5 35 38 Pugos nutrition for hypothyroidism https://ijpcr.net/ijpcr/article/view/130 <p>The thyroid gland is located at the base of our neck, It produces two hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), which circulate through our bloodstream and control metabolic activity in every cell in the body.</p> <p>Hypothyroidism or underactive thyroid occurs when the thyroid gland cannot produce enough thyroid hormones to meet the body’s demands. This causes all bodily functions to slow down and we feel tired, sluggish, achy, and gain weight.</p> <p>The most common cause of hypothyroidism was iodine deficiency. Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormone. The most common cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto’s disease, which is an autoimmune disorder in which the body makes antibodies that attack the thyroid gland. This impairs the production of thyroid hormone. People with Hashimoto’s develop a lump on their thyroid called a goiter.</p> <p>Hypothyroidism can also result from treatment of Graves’ disease (hyperthyroidism) with radioactive iodine, which destroys the thyroid gland, leaving it unable to produce hormones, and from surgical removal of the thyroid gland due to thyroid cancer. A baby can be born without a thyroid gland (congenital hypothyroidism).Diseases of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland can also cause hypothyroidism. These glands are involved in the regulation of the thyroid gland and the amount of thyroid hormone that is released. The hypothalamus releases thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which signals your pituitary gland to make thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The amount of TSH released depends on how much T3 and T4 are in our blood. The thyroid gland regulates its production of hormones based on the amount of TSH it receives. Hypothyroidism is easily treated today with thyroid hormones, Nutritional supplements, and various lifestyle approaches.</p> GovindShukla Sandeep kunche MonicaYadav Anusha kandala Uddhav L Kanade Arun Kumar Junjipelly C.J.Sampath Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 2021 5 39 44 Innovation and Challenges in Biotechnology https://ijpcr.net/ijpcr/article/view/131 <p>This brief analyses the regulatory, security and ethical challenges facing states and the international community regarding emerging technologies in biotechnology, focusing on the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system and artificial gene synthesis. It highlights the inadequacy of current mechanisms such as export control regimes to regulate these emerging technologies because of a fundamental shift in the nature of challenges posed and an altered global landscape. The brief also underlines the need for an inclusive mechanism to facilitate discussions on the ethical issues, and suggests possible solutions to the manifold dilemma.</p> R Darla Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2021-06-18 2021-06-18 2021 5 45 51 Edible vaccines: Modern Approach for Immunization https://ijpcr.net/ijpcr/article/view/132 <p>Edible vaccines offer cost-effective, easily administrable, storable and widely acceptable as bio friendly particularly in developing countries. Oral administration of edible vaccines proves to be promising agents for reducing the incidence of varied diseases like hepatitis and diarrhea especially within the developing world, which face the problem of storing and administering vaccines. Edible vaccines are obtained by incorporating a specific gene of interest into the plant, which produces the desirable encoded protein. Edible vaccines are specific to supply mucosal activity alongside systemic immunity. Various foods that are used as alternative agents for injectable vaccines include cereals (wheat, rice, corn) fruits (bananas) and vegetables (lettuce, potatoes, tomatoes). Thus, edible vaccines overcome all the issues related to traditional vaccines and convince be best substitutes to traditional vaccines.</p> R Darla Golla Chikitha Talari Lakshmi Poojitha Gude Durga Prasanna Abbigalla Sirisha Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2021-06-18 2021-06-18 2021 5 52 60 Preparation and standardization of ayurvedic polyhedral formulation; patoladi kvatha churna for skin diseases https://ijpcr.net/ijpcr/article/view/133 <p>An Ayurvedic formulation of Patoladi kvatha Churna was selected for the present work. Developing a generation to prefer Ayurvedic medicines than the allopathic drugs. Patoladi kvatha churna has traditionally used to treat skin diseases which have not been proved scientifically. So, the patoladi kvatha churna has chosen to prove their activity with scientific evidence.</p> Komala Bursa Rubeena Unnisa Ramya Krishna Hanmakonda Girija Ganji Aishwarya Dr. Parameshwar. H Dr.A.V. Jithan Ramya Sri.S Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 2021 5 61 71 Prescribing patterns of antihypertensive agents and assessment of co-morbidities in hypertensive patients https://ijpcr.net/ijpcr/article/view/134 <p>This guide is structured to assist physicians in the management of those hypertensive patients who present with specific comorbidities, such as diabetes, systolic dysfunction, obesity, renal disease, or previous cardiac events, often associated with hypertension. The clinical cases contained in this book have been selected to provide a paradigmatic set of scenarios frequently encountered in daily clinical practice, and will serve as an easy-to-access tool in applying general guidelines to individual patients, particularly in the choice of the most appropriate antihypertensive therapy. Treatment of hypertension with associated clinical conditions requires specific therapies and combinations of drugs, which are necessarily different from one comorbidity to another. By discussing exemplary cases that may better represent clinical practice in a “real world” setting, and analyzing step by step the diagnostic and therapeutic process, this book will assist cardiologists and physicians in selecting the diagnostic tools and forms of treatment best suited to the individual patient and the particular cardiovascular risk profile.</p> G.Esther Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 2021 5 72 82 A Comprehensive Review on Covid-19 Delta variant https://ijpcr.net/ijpcr/article/view/141 <h2>The Delta variant is a variant of SARS-CoV-2, which was the main reason behind the severity of the second wave in India. This variant had increased transmissibility and more severe infections. Currently, the Delta variant has dominated the number of infections all over the world. In England, as of June 14, there were 33,630 cases of delta variants in a weekCoronavirus, like all the other kinds of viruses, keeps mutating a process in which genetic information of the virus changes because of repeated copying errors. These mutations result in new variants, some of which can spread more easily, or cause more severe symptoms of covid-19 disease and a higher fatality rate.</h2> M.Ravisankar Dr.S.Alexandar Dr.R.Senthil Kumar Dr.Kannan Jakkan Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2021-07-12 2021-07-12 2021 5 83 85 The study of medication errors in multi-specialty hospital https://ijpcr.net/ijpcr/article/view/144 <p><strong>Aim of the study</strong> : &nbsp;the medication errors in multispecialty hospitals.</p> <p>Objective of the study Medication errors are the most common types of injuries experienced by hospitalized patients. Such type of events may be related to professional practice, health care products, procedures, and systems.</p> <p><strong>Results of study</strong> :&nbsp; A total of 120 cases of the patients were collected out of which we detected 28 errors from 26cases, in which 24(92.3)cases have only a single error each, and the other 2(7.7&nbsp;&nbsp; ) cases have two errors each during their hospital stay out of26 cases from which medication errorswereobserved15(57.6wereofmale,and11(42.4were of female, and most of the medication errors were identified in age groups 50-70 years(41.2a total of 28 medication errors observed among which 46.4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; were of administration errors, 35.7&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; were of dispensing, and 17.5were of prescribing. Most of the medication errors were 46.4due to nurses, 35.7due to pharmacists, and 17.5were due to physicians. On the evaluation of severity majority of medication errors, 65.7were classified as a category error, no harm followed by 34.3&nbsp; were in the no error category.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> : &nbsp;of the study of&nbsp; The study concluded that 13.5&nbsp; of medication errors were detected during the study period and revealed that pharmacists could play a significant role in preventing these errors by detecting the merely.</p> BRUNO BATHULA Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2021-07-19 2021-07-19 2021 5 86 90 Astashinesilver capsules: an excellent choice as kidney protector & as anti-diabetic in diabesity https://ijpcr.net/ijpcr/article/view/146 <p>Globally, Diabetes Mellitus and its complications is the third largest killer.At the current rate, the diabetic population of 171 million will increase to 366 million by 2030. One of the most common complications associated with DM is nephropathy or kidney damage. Diabetes is strongly linked to oxidative stress as either a consequence of increased ROS production, reduced antioxidant status, or both. Oxidative stress in diabetes is brought on by consistent hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels) from a very high carbohydrate diet, reduced cell carbohydrate uptake, and/or low insulin output from the pancreas.&nbsp; Astaxanthin could lessen oxidative stress in pancreatic beta cells (the cells in body that produce insulin) caused by chronic high blood sugar levels. In turn, this improves the body’s ability to manage blood glucose levels by allowing the pancreatic cells to make the right amount of insulin when needed.&nbsp;Astaxanthin was found to improve pancreatic beta cell function and protect these cells from glucose toxicity, cell breakdown and death. L-Carnitine is a fatty acid oxidation facilitator which acts by interorganelle translocation of fatty acids. L-carnitine is a powerful aid due to its role in the conversion of fat into energy. L-carnitine is essential for beta-oxidation by transferring long-chain fatty acids from the cytosol to mitochondria. This article reviews the current available scientific literature regarding the effect of Astashine silver capsules as Antidiabetic in diabesity and as kidney protector.</p> GovindShukla Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) 2021-07-23 2021-07-23 2021 5 91 97