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Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder characterized by psychotic symptoms, including hallucinations and delusions, which profoundly impact emotions, behavior, and cognition. Its global prevalence underscores its significance as a public health concern, with substantial social and economic burdens. The pathophysiology of schizophrenia implicates dysregulation of neurotransmitters, particularly dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate. Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by a wide range of symptoms and cognitive impairments, profoundly impacting affected individuals and society. This article provides an overview of schizophrenia, including its epidemiology, symptoms, and underlying pathophysiology involving dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate. It discusses the current treatment landscape, emphasizing the importance of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Non-pharmacological approaches such as cognitive remediation, physical exercise, non-invasive brain stimulation, complementary interventions, cognitive behavioral therapy, and yoga therapy are explored, highlighting their efficacy in improving functional outcomes. Additionally, the article reviews pharmacological strategies targeting dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate receptors, as well as emerging treatments involving adrenergic, cholinergic, muscarinic, and other agents. Despite advancements, challenges in implementing evidence-based interventions persist, underscoring the need for further research and collaboration to enhance schizophrenia management and improve the lives of affected individuals.


Schizophrenia Psychosis Treatment strategies Pharmacological interventions Nonpharmacological interventions

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