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Schizophrenia is a complex neurological disorder characterized by continuous or relapsing episodes of psychosis that profoundly affect an individual's thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. This review looks at the epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, clinical symptoms, and diagnosis of schizophrenia. Epidemiologically, it affects millions globally, with onset typically in late adolescence or early adulthood, and it carries a higher risk of premature mortality. Etiologically, schizophrenia involves anomalies in brain structure and neurotransmitter activity, with a neurodevelopmental model suggesting in utero abnormalities and genetic susceptibility. The pathogenesis is associated with abnormalities in dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate systems. Positive signs of schizophrenia include hallucinations and delusions, as well as negative symptoms such as social disengagement and cognitive deficiencies. Diagnosis relies on specific criteria involving symptom duration, social/occupational dysfunction, and exclusion of other causes. Understanding these aspects is crucial for early diagnosis and effective management of this debilitating disorder.


Schizophrenia Psychosis Hallucination Positive symptoms Dopamine hypothesis cognitive deficiency

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