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Hydrocephalus is an abnormal condition that buildup of fluid in the skull within the brain and causes brain to swell. Hydrocephalus also called as water on the brain. Hydrocephalus is a condition in which excess amount of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) gets accumulated within the fluid-containing cavities (or) ventricles of the brain. Hydrocephalus mainly occurs in children and adults over 60, but younger adults can get it. According to the Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) estimates that 1 to 2 of every 1,000 babies are born with hydrocephalus. There is about 500ml is produce of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at any one time, and about 125ml is absorbed. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is constant circulation within the brain ventricles and its act as many circulating functioning like as; A cushion (or) buffer, providing basic mechanical protection to the brain inside the skull, Serves a vital function in the cerebral auto-regulation of cerebral blood flow and removing waste from it, Changes pressure in between cranium and spine. When excess amount of CSF accumulated in the brain due to birth defected (or) acquired later in life. It may be neutral tube defects (spina bifida, anencephaly) and also including meninges, intracranial tumors, traumatic brain injury, intra-ventricular hemorrhage and sub-arachnoid hemorrhage. Hydrocephalus are majorly divided into two types are called Communicating hydrocephalus and Non-communicating hydrocephalus. Causes of hydrocephalus are imbalance between how much  produced and absorbed of cerebrospinal fluid into the bloodstream, spina bifida, a brain tumor and also infection in the brain. The symptoms of hydrocephalus are mostly depend on age like Infant, older children, middle-aged adults, young adults and significantly can vary from person to person. Testing and diagnosis of hydrocephalus can be carried out by a clinical neurological exam and also by using brain imaging techniques like Ultrasound, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Computed tomography (CT), Fundoscopic examination, Spinal tap (lumbar puncture), and Intracranial pressure monitoring (ICP). Hydrocephalus is mainly treated with surgical options as; A shun (tube) & Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV).



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